Clinical Studies

Written by MacuHealth
Reviewed by Jim Stringham, Ph.D.

A supplement label may promise to include a defined portion of active ingredients, but research shows that the truth could be vastly different. Cheap formulations and storage techniques can degrade nutrients, causing them to lose their bioavailability to light and oxidation, meaning you aren’t getting everything promised on the bottle.

“At present, clinicians and consumers are not adequately informed via product labeling,” stated Dr. David Phelan, Professor John Nolan and Dr. Alfonso Prado-Cabrero in their study on supplements in the journal Nutrients.1 “However, it is also important to point out that there are quality and effective carotenoid products on the market, which have scientific evidence to back up their claims of label and efficacy.”

MacuHealth enhances the stability of its Triple Carotenoid Formula with something called Micro-MicelleTM Technology. It allows the body to absorb nutrients inside the supplement at a significantly higher rate. In a recent clinical study, MacuHealth’s formula provided the highest bioavailability with significantly higher serum and retinal response when compared to a standard macular carotenoid supplement.2

But how does Micro-Micelle Technology work? We’ll explain the process and what it means to MacuHealth users.

Why Micro-Micelle Technology Matters?

As stated above, studies have shown that the active ingredients in most carotenoid supplements that come in the form of a powder or tablet corrode, causing their potency to diminish or disappear altogether.  This means your eyes won’t receive the necessary nutrients to boost your vision, absorb harmful blue light, or manage the symptoms of age-related macular degeneration.

MacuHealth, an oil-based supplement, is formulated to stabilize the powerful carotenoids – Lutein, Meso-Zeaxanthin and Zeaxanthin – in its formula better than other supplements. But these nutrients, which appear in the supplement in their pure, natural form, tended to crystalize in the supplement’s previous version, making the carotenoids difficult for the body to absorb. Researchers started looking for a way to prevent these carotenoids from bonding together so more of them could reach the macula to enhance a patient’s vision.

How Does Micro-Micelle Technology Work?

Lutein, Meso-Zeaxanthin and Zeaxanthin make their way to the macula through a protein in the body called SR-B1. Because these carotenoids were clumping together, SR-B1 wasn’t taking as many of them as it could to the eye. A system needed to be created to keep ingredients stable and from crystallizing.

The answer came in the form of natural, organic acids (acetate). When you add acetate to each end of the carotenoid molecule, they maintain their solubility,3 greatly enhancing bioavailability. Placing these non-crystallized carotenoids in a stabilizing matrix, such as Vitamin E and sunflower oil, prevents oxidation. 

The acetates prevented the carotenoids from crystalizing and provided a more efficient way for the SR-B1 protein to transport them to the macular tissues that need them. The utilization of Micro-Micelle Technology marks an improvement over previous iterations of MacuHealth by increasing the bioavailability of the supplement’s formula without any negative side effects. 4

What Does This Mean for MacuHealth Users?

Micro-Micelle Technology ensures that the nutrients inside MacuHealth retain their all-natural form, and that your eyes and brain receive the carotenoids needed to manage AMD symptoms and improve nearly all aspects of visual performance. In short, you’re getting everything you paid for and the benefits that come with it. “This formulation represents a new standard in nutritional vision science and eye care,” says Professor Nolan.


For more information about Micro-Micelle Technology and MacuHealth’s Triple Carotenoid Formula, please visit this page.


  1. Phelan D, Prado-Cabrero A, Nolan JM. Stability of Commercially Available Macular Carotenoid Supplements in Oil and Powder Formulations. Nutrients. 2017;9(10): 1133.­­
  2. Green Gomez et al 2020. Doi:10.3390/antiox9080767
  3. Torres-Cardona, MD, Torres-Quiroga, JO. Short-Chain Diesters and Process for Making the Same. U.S. Patent 5959138A, 28 September 1999.
  4. Green-Gomez M, Prado-Cabrero A, Moran R, Power T, Gómez-Mascaraque LG, Stack J, Nolan JM. The Impact of Formulation on Lutein, Zeaxanthin, and meso-Zeaxanthin Bioavailability: A Randomised Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study. Antioxidants (Basel). 2020 Aug 18;9(8):767. doi: 10.3390/antiox9080767. PMID: 32824736.

Clinical Studies

Written by MacuHealth
Reviewed by Jim Stringham, Ph.D.

The lights seem a little brighter than usual. You squint for minutes until your focus readjusts, but you can’t shake this feeling that there’s something in your eyes. They feel gritty and rough as you constantly rub them. They feel itchy around your sockets, and your eyeballs are so sore and inflamed that your vision becomes blurred.

The above paragraph describes what it’s like living with dry eye. This frustrating, and many times chronic condition, affects nearly 16 million Americans, particularly older adults. The ocular irritation may be relieved with a bottle of eye drops, but the ingredients in some of these products actually exacerbate symptoms. What are some ways you can combat dry eye? We’ll share what causes it, who’s at risk, and some methods to treat it.

Causes of Dry Eye

Dealing with the symptoms of dry eye is enough to make you cry. But according to the American Optometric Association, the condition is caused by a lack of tears. Moisture spreads across the surface of the eye, lubricating and protecting them from foreign objects and infection. As we get older, tear production and drainage through the tear ducts become imbalanced. The glands in and around the eyelids produce fewer tears, or in some cases, make lower-quality droplets that evaporate quickly, causing them to spread unevenly around the eye.

Tear production can decrease for several reasons. In addition to aging, hormonal changes caused by pregnancy and menopause cause more women to experience dry eye. Other medical conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, and issues with the thyroid cause inflammation to develop. And certain medications such as antihistamines, decongestants, blood pressure medications and antidepressants can also lead to fewer tears.

Environmental conditions have also caused symptoms to rise in younger people. Smoking and dry climates can intensify dry eye, as can an increase in screen time. When looking at electronic devices for an extended amount of time, our eyes blink less, which leads to a decrease in tear production.

Treatments for Dry Eye

Here are some simple ways to prevent dry eye symptoms:

  • Regularly blink your eyes when staring at electronic devices for an extended amount of time
  • Take a 20-second break from whatever you’re working on every 20 minutes and focus your eyes on an object 20 feet away
  • Keep blowing fans and heaters away from your face
  • Wear sunglasses outdoors to reduce exposure to wind and other weather conditions
  • Drink the recommended 8 to 10 glasses of water daily to keep your body and tear ducts hydrated
  • Use artificial tears and humidifiers to keep eyes moist

How Supplementing with Omega-3s Helps Dry Eye

Inflammation is at the root of dry eye, and unfortunately, there is no cure. But there are a variety of treatments that can manage symptoms. Most people turn to over-the-counter eye drops, but using them can make things worse. Some prescriptions control some of the underlying causes of dry eye, and there are also invasive procedures to help increase tear production or close the ducts to reduce tear loss.

Another way to soothe inflammation is by supplementing with Omega-3s. In addition to improving brain and heart health, an American Academy of Ophthalmology study shows consuming fish oil through seafood or supplements reduces dry eye symptoms. It also significantly lowers the risk of developing other retinal diseases like age-related macular degeneration (AMD).

Yet many people are hesitant to go on a fish oil regimen because of the low-quality ingredients that cause odd-smelling “fishy burps.” The formula for the supplement TG Omega-3 by MacuHealth uses oils from small, traceable open-water fish refined to the highest purity and quality. This ensures optimum health, without the undesirable fish burps. 

Carotenoids reduce the risk of disease progression by providing antioxidative properties to the eye, brain and body.

Clinical Studies

Written by MacuHealth
Reviewed by Jim Stringham, Ph.D.

You may not know carotenoids, but chances are you’ve heard of antioxidants, the robust components of healthy foods that take on dangerous molecules known as free radicals which damage cells inside the body. There are over 700 carotenoids found in nature. Most fruits and vegetables contain carotenoids, and some leafy greens feature unique carotenoids that fight an intense battle against free radicals inside the retina.

“The retina, especially the macula, is thought to be an environment of high oxidative stress, meaning that there is an abundance of free radicals—molecules that damage proteins and DNA within cells. Antioxidants fight free radicals and are thought to help protect the retina from this damage,” explains Dr. Ivana Kim, at Harvard Medical School.

If left unchecked, the damage from oxidative stress can lead to age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of vision loss in those over 60. Interestingly, three specific carotenoids deposited in the retina are clinically proven to prevent and manage the symptoms of AMD. We’ll take a look at how these three carotenoids guard the eyes and can improve eyesight and cognitive health.

Lutein, Zeaxanthin and Meso-Zeaxanthin

As Dr. Kim stated above, the retina needs a massive amount of oxygen to fuel the process of transforming light into images. Near the retina’s center is the macula, which serves central vision and contains the largest concentration of photoreceptors in the eye. It’s responsible for bringing detail and color to our sight. Because the macula demands so much oxygen to perform, oxidative stress and inflammation can severely impact eye and brain performance, causing a decrease in processing speed, contrast sensitivity, and adjusting to low-light situations.

The body is aware of this, so it places three powerful carotenoids – Lutein, Meso-Zeaxanthin and Zeaxanthin – in the macula, where collectively they are called “macular pigment.” Their robust antioxidant properties make them capable of protecting the macula against free radicals. Because the macular pigment is colored yellow, it absorbs potentially harmful blue light. All of this leads to improved visual performance, including sharper colors, better contrast sensitivity and enhanced night vision. Studies show these carotenoids can also potentially delay (or even halt) the progression of AMD.

Lutein, Meso-Zeaxanthin and Zeaxanthin are essential nutrients for the eye and brain, but our bodies can’t make them on their own. The average person consumes only one to two milligrams of macular carotenoids daily in their diet, in part because modern farming conditions have caused the nutritional value of fruits and vegetables to decline.1 Numerous studies show that taking supplements with all three macular carotenoids provides far superior results than taking Lutein and Zeaxanthin. Evidence also points to these nutrients reducing the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease and slowing its progression.

Carotenoids Aren’t Just for Eyes

Studies show that carotenoids accumulate in the parts of the brain that interact with the retina, which can offer improved cognitive function. They combat oxidative stress that has built up over time, which is the root cause of Alzheimer’s Disease and could be beneficial in managing the condition.

In one study3, the Nutrition Research Centre Ireland and the University Hospital Waterford divided Alzheimer’s patients into two groups. One took a carotenoid formula of 10mg of Lutein, 10mg of Meso-Zeaxanthin and 2mg of Zeaxanthin. The second group received both fish oil consisting of 450 mg of DHA and the carotenoid formulation. A third (control) group of patients without Alzheimer’s Disease took only the carotenoid formula.

After a year and a half of supplementation, those who took the carotenoid formulation and the fish oil experienced improved cognitive function based on a series of independently performed tests, including functional benefits in memory, sight and mood.

Professor John Nolan , Ph.D., who led the study, explains: “Our previous work confirmed that Lutein, Meso-Zeaxanthin and Zeaxanthin are found in the eye and that enrichment of these essential nutrients with nutritional supplements can improve visual function. However, their high concentration in the healthy human brain also suggests a role for these nutrients in cognition.”

Based on overwhelming scientific evidence, it’s clear that we need sufficient amounts of Lutein, Meso-Zeaxanthin, and Zeaxanthin for optimal visual and cognitive health and performance. Thankfully, supplementation can help us reach the levels we need to realize all the benefits.  


  1. Johnson, E. J., Maras, J. E., Rasmussen, H. M., & Tucker, K. L. (2010). Intake of lutein and zeaxanthin differ with age, sex, and ethnicity. Journal of the American Dietetic Association110(9), 1357–1362.
  2. Li, B., Ahmed, F., & Bernstein, P. S. (2010). Studies on the singlet oxygen scavenging mechanism of human macular pigment. Archives of biochemistry and biophysics504(1), 56–60.
  3. Nolan, J. M., Mulcahy, R., Power, R., Moran, R., & Howard, A. N. (2018). Nutritional Intervention to Prevent Alzheimer’s Disease: Potential Benefits of Xanthophyll Carotenoids and Omega-3 Fatty Acids Combined. Journal of Alzheimer’s disease : JAD64(2), 367–378.

Clinical Studies

Written by MacuHealth
Reviewed by Jim Stringham, Ph.D.

Blue light is inescapable. We’re exposed to its short, high-energy wavelengths when we check our phones in the morning, and it strains our eyes as we stare at our computer monitors and tablets at work. Blue light is in the sunlight and fills our home when we turn on the lights and television sets.

But we can protect ourselves from blue light’s harmful effects. We’ll share the reasons why you should be concerned about long-term blue light exposure and ways you can protect your eyes.

Headaches, Eye Strain and Sleepless Nights

Blue light isn’t entirely unhealthy. Studies show it’s vital for some body functions. It releases serotonin, a ho­­rmone that can boost mood and improve memory and reaction time. It also keeps us alert during the day and enhances our color vision.

But exposure to blue light at certain times of the day can be harmful. A Harvard study showed that blue light exposure before bedtime slows down the release of melatonin, the hormone that regulates our body’s circadian rhythm (or sleeping pattern). This disruption leaves us feeling more tired throughout the day, putting us at risk for depression, diabetes and heart issues.

Prolonged blue light exposure also strains the eyes and damages the macula, the part of your retina that processes your central vision. It accelerates the onset of age-related macular degeneration and lowers your ability to see objects at night. It also leads to dry, irritated eyes and headaches.

In older patients, blue light protection is even more important after cataract surgery. The eye’s lens blocks some blue light on its own. When a cataract is removed, patients lose that natural filter that the cataract provided, which increases their risk for AMD.

Blue Light’s Effect on Children

Increased screen time can be harmful to children’s developing vision. In addition to the effects of blue light on their sleeping pattern, studies have shown that nearsightedness (also known as myopia) is increasingly prevalent among kids, with tablets and video game consoles suggested as the culprit.a

What Are Some Ways We Can Combat Blue Light?

20-20-20 Rule

As the public becomes better educated on the dangers of blue light, device manufacturers have added a dark mode and other settings to products to reduce glare and block blue light by 30 to 60 percent. You can also give your eyes a rest by taking a 20-second break from your screen every 20 minutes, then focusing on an object 20 feet away.

Blue Light Glasses

Blue-blocking glasses have become popular over the last few years. They’re proven to stop blue light, but researchers don’t recommend them as they’ve been ineffective at reducing eye strain. Try using artificial tears and humidifiers instead to keep your eyes moist and decrease headaches.

How Supplements Help with Blue Light

Several nutrition-based studies have demonstrated that we tend to fall short in our intake of fruits and vegetables, particularly the three antioxidant carotenoids that protect the central retina against blue light – Lutein, Zeaxanthin, and Meso-Zeaxanthin.  Over time, without these nutrients, we run the risk of degeneration in our central retina. Consistent consumption of these carotenoids is necessary to maintain the health of the macula, especially as we age.

In one clinical study, those who spent more than six hours in front of a screen and took a macular carotenoid supplement with Lutein, Meso-Zeaxanthin and Zeaxanthin showed a significant reduction in headaches, eye strain and fatigue. There was also an increased improvement in sleep quality and macular pigment levels.1

Although the body can absorb these carotenoids from spinach, carrots and other foods, the average person only consumes one to two milligrams of them daily in their diet.2 Additionally, new farming methods and environmental conditions have caused a decline in the nutritional value of fruits and vegetables, which means that we get about 1/20th of the recommended amount of these vital nutrients.

Supplementation with these three carotenoids is a viable way to ensure high levels in the retina, Quality supplements like MacuHealth are an excellent way to ensure that the body receives the proper amount of the essential carotenoids it needs to support visual health and performance. Studies show that supplements containing Lutein, Meso-Zeaxanthin and Zeaxanthin increase the macular pigment significantly, improve visual performance and absorb blue light.


  1. Stringham, J. M., Stringham, N. T., & O’Brien, K. J. (2017). Macular Carotenoid Supplementation Improves Visual Performance, Sleep Quality, and Adverse Physical Symptoms in Those with High Screen Time Exposure. Foods (Basel, Switzerland)6(7), 47.
  2. Johnson, E. J., Maras, J. E., Rasmussen, H. M., & Tucker, K. L. (2010). Intake of lutein and zeaxanthin differ with age, sex, and ethnicity. Journal of the American Dietetic Association110(9), 1357–1362.

A nutritional supplement’s effectiveness depends on absorption inside the body. But if it offers little to no bioavailability or your body has a difficult time absorbing its nutrients, then it’s not doing you any good.

Clinical Studies

Written by MacuHealth
Reviewed by Jim Stringham, Ph.D.

The nutrients included in high-quality supplements offer plenty of health benefits for the human body and fill the nutritional gaps missing from the modern diet. But not all of them are created equal.

“We confirm that a number of commercially available carotenoid food supplements do not achieve their label claim,” explained Dr. David Phelan, Professor John Nolan and Dr. Alfonso Prado-Cabrero in their study on supplements in the journal Nutrients.1

A nutritional supplement’s effectiveness depends on absorption inside the body. But if it offers little to no bioavailability or your body has a difficult time absorbing its nutrients, then it’s not doing you any good.

What is bioavailability, and why is it so important? Bioavailability is effectively absorption – the fraction of active ingredients absorbed into the body’s circulation. It’s dependent on many factors. Knowing if a supplement has high bioavailability is crucial for a nutrient to be effective. Bioavailability also ensures that consumers are getting what they’re paying for. We’ll look at how bioavailability is measured and how supplements retain their potency.

How Does Bioavailability Work?

We absorb the many types of ingredients we ingest in different ways. Some nutrients, such as carbohydrates and proteins, are easily processed into our bloodstream. But vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and other nutrients are more complicated, making it more difficult for our bodies to break them down and absorb them.

For example, a medication injected directly into the bloodstream should have 100 percent bioavailability. But an orally taken drug or supplement must pass through several barriers inside your body, such as your intestinal wall and liver. Some nutrients, such as Vitamin C, are water-soluble, meaning that they are easily absorbed when taken with water.  Other nutrients, such as Vitamin E or carotenoids, are lipid-soluble, meaning that a small amount of fat is necessary for their transport across the intestinal wall into the bloodstream.

With orally ingested nutritional supplements, the fraction received by the body is typically measured with a blood draw. It won’t give you the exact fraction absorbed (higher is better), allowing for comparison among supplements and significant differences between them.

What Can Alter Bioavailability?

Though a supplement’s label may claim a certain amount of an active ingredient, the truth is that due to external factors, low-quality formulations and cost-saving techniques, it might be significantly lower. Factors that can alter the bioavailability of nutrients in supplements include the molecular structure of the active ingredients, the encapsulation process and your body’s own response.

Supplement's Molecular Structure and Formulation

The molecular structure and formulation of ingredients matter. For example, fish oil has re-esterified triglyceride and ethyl ester forms. While the latter is significantly cheaper, it’s much harder to absorb because of its synthetic form. The body recognizes re-esterified triglyceride fish oils, allowing them to be more easily absorbed.

Supplement's Encapsulation Method

Supplements are encapsulated in many forms: powder, softgel, liquid, etc. Powder-filled capsules tend to have a higher chance of degrading and losing bioavailability due to their clear interlock, making them more susceptible to light and oxidation. On the flipside, oil-filled softgels have airtight closing with more protection from heat, light, and oxygen – factors that can significantly degrade nutrients.

Body's Metabolism and Condition

Lastly, your body’s metabolism can affect how you absorb medications and supplements. Our natural digestive enzymes, like stomach acid, or certain intestinal disorders involving inflammation, can impair the passage of these essential substances into the bloodstream. As we grow older, our stomach produces less acid, which compromises our ability to absorb nutrients.

What to Look for in a Supplement with High Bioavailability

One thing a patient can do is to check the label of their supplement. The manufacturer may recommend taking one with a meal because (see above) certain nutrients are fat-soluble, meaning they’re better absorbed with food. Taking a formulation with breakfast or dinner ensures the body receives all the active ingredients in a supplement.

Another thing to look for on the label is if the supplement is in tablet or capsule form. Most capsules contain oil-based formulations that are more stable and less likely to degrade than a tablet. Lastly, good nutritional supplements usually have peer-reviewed science behind their formulations. In their study, Dr. Phelan, Professor Nolan and Dr. Prado-Cabrero stated they believe that “clinicians and consumers should select…products which have appropriate scientific evidence confirming product stability and efficacy.” 

Eye supplements like MacuHealth feature Micro-MicelleTM Technology, which enhances the stability and bioavailability of the three carotenoids found in its patented formulation. In a recent clinical study, its formula provided the highest bioavailability studied to date with significantly higher serum and retinal response than compared to a standard macular carotenoid supplement.2

Supplement Certified, an independent certification team based at the Nutrition Research Centre Ireland (NRCI) within the Waterford Institute of Technology, provides a rigorous analysis of products to ensure that a supplement’s active ingredients retain their potency and stability throughout its shelf-life. MacuHealth is honored to carry its seal on all its products.


  1. Phelan, D., Prado-Cabrero, A., & Nolan, J. M. (2017). Stability of Commercially Available Macular Carotenoid Supplements in Oil and Powder Formulations. Nutrients9(10), 1133.
  2. Green-Gomez, M., Prado-Cabrero, A., Moran, R., Power, T., Gómez-Mascaraque, L. G., Stack, J., & Nolan, J. M. (2020). The Impact of Formulation on Lutein, Zeaxanthin, and meso-Zeaxanthin Bioavailability: A Randomised Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study. Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)9(8), 767.
Young Scientist Working in The Laboratory

Clinical Studies

Written by MacuHealth
Reviewed by Jim Stringham, Ph.D.

Nutritional supplements are notoriously unregulated, meaning that companies can make false claims about their products and put inactive ingredients in their formulations. As bad as this may sound, it has happened.

So, who can you trust?  The most effective way to evaluate any product claims is to examine the science (if any) conducted on it.  Some companies may conduct in-house scientific testing and often advertise their “findings” on their website or social media. Yet, the most trusted and respected form of science is called peer-reviewed.

But what does being peer-reviewed mean to patients? We’ll define what the term means and review what research must undergo to achieve this status.

What Does Peer-Reviewed Mean?

In a nutshell, a peer-reviewed publication is what the name suggests: a scientific investigation thoroughly analyzed by at least two other independent researchers (peers) in the same area of study. More specifically, the peer review process is a form of quality control intended to weed out poorly researched work in order to maintain a scientific journal’s integrity. But to fully understand what becoming “peer-reviewed” is, it’s necessary to understand the distinction between a piece found in a widely published periodical or on social media and a bona fide scholarly article.

Before a newspaper or a magazine publishes an article, an editor checks it for, among other things, readability by a large audience. It then undergoes a fact-checking process to ensure that the writer’s story is correct and that any facts or statistics used in the article haven’t changed. There is usually one person designated to do this, and often, the author, editor or fact-checker is not an expert in a particular field.

When a scholar sends their research for publication to a journal, the editor ensures that it’s written for an audience of researchers, which means it’ll contain terms typically understood by experts. But instead of sending to one person for a fact-check, the journal’s editor sends these findings to peers as an extra step in the publication process.

“Peer-reviewed publication is a scientific investigation thoroughly analyzed by at least two other independent researchers (peers) in the same area of study. More specifically, the peer review process is a form of quality control intended to weed out poorly researched work in order to maintain a scientific journal’s integrity.”

The Process of Becoming Peer-Reviewed

The method of peer-reviewing can be complicated and lengthy. According to the American Psychological Association, here are the four steps of the journey:

  1. A scholar submits their research paper to a journal. The publication’s editor determines if the manuscript is free from any flaws or conflicts of interest, then selects qualified individuals in the author’s field of study to offer a fair review.
  1. Review Research and Statistics. The editor and the selected peers review the paper in its entirety, including any tables or figures attached, to ensure that the information not only follows the publication’s guidelines but is also well-organized, coherent, clearly defined and relevant. Often, this process is double-blind, which means the identity of the author and reviewers is unknown to avoid any bias. 
  1. It can take several weeks for a journal to decide to publish a paper, and most get sent back to the author with suggestions for revision. Feedback can include reorganizing the research structure or conducting additional experiments. Typically, the peers who reviewed the original document will view the revised manuscript.
  1. If the revisions are approved, the editor will schedule the paper for publication. If the author receives a rejection and believes a point was overlooked or misunderstood, they can appeal the decision. The time from submission to publication can be nearly a year.

The Benefits of Being Peer-Reviewed

MacuHealth’s motto is “Embrace the science,” and completing the peer-review process is a significant test of scientific integrity. There are over 30 peer-reviewed publications that support the effectiveness, bioavailability, and safety of MacuHealth’s formulations, which speaks to its dedication to science.  Despite the length of time it takes to be peer-reviewed, it’s vital for the safety and trust of its customers.

When researchers evaluate MacuHealth in their studies, and the results of them are peer-reviewed and ultimately published, it gives eye care professionals and patients confidence to trust its claims and realize the supplement’s health benefits. Its willingness to undergo this process is a vital part of what sets MacuHealth apart from the competition.