Clinical Studies

eye health
Orange colored fruits are great for your eye health.

Written by MacuHealth
Reviewed by Jim Stringham, Ph.D.

Everyone from your doctor to talk show hosts has told you the importance of good nutrition as it relates to your heart and waistline. But chances are you’re unaware of how the right foods can contribute to good eye health and visual performance. Certain fruits and vegetables have ingredients that can reduce your risk for certain eye diseases, including cataracts and age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and enhance contrast sensitivity and vision in glare.

If you’re looking to manage the symptoms of early AMD or simply want to boost your visual performance, consider including these foods in your diet.  

Raw bell peppers

Studies show that the vitamin C in bell peppers can improve blood flow through the tiny vessels in your eyes and lower your risk of developing cataracts, according to WebMD. The brighter the color, the better, but try to eat them raw. Heat breaks down vitamin C.

Almonds and sunflower seeds

Vitamin E is one of the key nutrients in AREDS2 supplements. It has been shown in peer-reviewed studies to slow down the symptoms of AMD and reduce the risk of developing cataracts. One ounce of sunflower seeds or almonds has half the daily recommended amount of this powerful nutrient, according to WebMD. 

Dark green leafy vegetables

Remember when your parents told you to eat your greens? There was a reason for that: they have the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin, which are proven to rebuild the macular pigment and lower your risk of AMD. Next time you’re at the grocery store, stock up on kale, spinach, and collard greens to give your eye health a boost.

Salmon and other fish

Seafood such as salmon, tuna, and trout are rich in the omega-3 fatty acids DHA and EPA. Not only do these oils boost your brain and heart health, but they also help decrease dry eye symptoms.

Orange-colored fruits and vegetables

They say carrots can help boost your eyesight. These and other orange-colored vegetables are rich in the carotenoid beta-carotene, which the body converts into vitamin A, a key player in preserving visual function. It’s also been shown to prevent blindness and maintain the health of the cornea (the clear front of the eye). Sweet potatoes, carrots, pumpkin, cantaloupe, mangos and apricots are also high in this essential nutrient.

Poultry and lean meats

The mineral zinc is essential to bringing vitamin A from your liver to your retina to make melanin, a pigment vital for eye health. Chicken, pork, beef and oysters are rich in this nutrient, but keep in mind that the FDA has set the daily tolerable limit for zinc at 40 mg. 


Are you looking for a vegetarian option for your daily zinc intake? Beans and other legumes can help your eye health as they are rich in this essential mineral. Chickpeas will give you what you need, but black-eyed peas, kidney beans, lentils and even a can of baked beans will do the job.

Eggs are good for eye health

If you’re looking for a meal that will supercharge you and your vision in the morning, cook up some eggs. The carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin are in the yolk, which is perfect for your eye health as these ingredients increase your macular pigment, which is vital for protecting your central vision and preventing AMD.


And speaking of lutein and zeaxanthin, they can also be found in squash. Summer squash also has vitamin C and zinc, vital antioxidants for maintaining eye health. There are also omega-3 fatty acids in winter squash, which can help naturally reduce dry eye symptoms.

Broccoli and Brussels Sprouts

If you’re looking to protect your eyes from the free radicals that can damage your vision, you can’t go wrong with these two veggies. They have the carotenoids you need to protect the retina.

We need the carotenoids Lutein, Meso-Zeaxanthin and Zeaxanthin for optimal visual and cognitive health and performance. Thankfully, supplementation can help us reach the levels we need to realize all the benefits.  Eye vitamins such as MacuHealth and MacuHealth Plus+ are specifically formulated with these ingredients to enrich and restore macular pigment to optimum levels.

Clinical Studies

eye to brain connection
The eye to brain connection can support our health.

Written by MacuHealth
Reviewed by Jim Stringham, Ph.D.

If you want to know how to keep your eyes healthy, it’s important to understand how your eyes and brain work together to interpret the world around us. 

You might already know that the optic nerve connects your eyes and your brain, but it’s much more complex than that! Let’s delve into the eye-to-brain connection and examine how supporting your eye health improves your overall well-being.

Understanding the Eye-to-Brain Connection

Every part of your body connects to your brain, but the relationship between the eye and the brain is especially complicated. Your eyes and brain share a structural relationship that lets them process information. Yet the process isn’t done; using the information provided by your eyes and brain helps you maintain balance, understand what you see, decide what to do with that information and more. But how are the eyes connected to the brain?

How the Eyes and Brain Connect Structurally

Your eyes and brain are connected via the optic nerve, a dense bundle of nerve fibers that work like a cable. Each eye has its own thread that reaches back toward the brain.

At a spot called the optic chiasm, fibers from each optic nerve bundle cross over one another. That crossing helps you connect what you see with both eyes, which is essential for depth perception. From there, the signals from your eyes are further processed into color, form, and motion channels that ultimately get combined in the back of the brain – the visual cortex.

How the Eyes and Brain Connect to Process Information

When it comes to your vision, your optic nerve is an information highway. When light enters your eye, it reaches the retina, a layer of light-sensitive tissue that sits at the back of the eye and connects to the optic nerve.

The retina is full of cells called photoreceptors. These cells convert light into electrical signals that are sent down the optic nerve and toward your brain.

Before those signals reach the rest of your brain, they go to a structure in the thalamus called the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN). The LGN brings data from all your senses, so it’s essential for balance and many other functions. The LGN routes visual information to the appropriate brain areas “higher up” in the visual stream.

What the Brain Does with That Information

In the next step of the eye-brain connection, the electrical signals reach the visual cortex and other brain areas for processing and construction of a complete picture. It’s a lot like how a computer can turn code into a user-friendly website.

The brain also helps you react to what you see. For instance, your brain might process colors, light, shape and size to show you a picture of an oncoming car. It will then tell you to get out of the way before the car hits you.

Connection Between Vision and Cognition

Now you have a good general idea of how the eye-to-brain connection works. But vision is also connected to cognition. 

Specifically, at least one study from the Journal of the American Medical Association found that older people with declining vision are more likely to experience memory loss and other symptoms of cognitive decline.

Younger people have greater neuroplasticity, meaning their brains can more easily adapt to challenges. So, people who develop visual issues earlier in life can adapt to a lack of visual input and don’t tend to experience cognitive decline. It’s an interesting example of the eyes’ connection to the brain and its effects on the body.

Age-related visual decline isn’t the only type of vision loss that can contribute to cognitive issues, though other health conditions can impact your cognition and vision.

Diabetes and High Blood Pressure

Blood vessels that connect to your brain and eyes can be negatively impacted by diabetes and high blood pressure. Eventually, that impact can lead to vision loss and cognitive decline.

Poor Blood Supply

If the blood supply to your eyes is insufficient, your eyes won’t receive the nutrients they need to function correctly. Due to the strong brain-eye connection, parts of your retina and brain may die if your blood supply is limited. That leads to degeneration of vision and ensuing cognitive decline.

Damage to the Arteries

Similarly, arterial damage will disrupt the delivery of nutrient-rich blood to your eyes and brain, leading to a decline in vision and cognition.


According to studies in the Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, inflammation has been linked to cognitive decline. However, it also may cause vision loss. Chronic inflammation can cause nerves to degenerate and impair the building of new nerves. 

Since the optic nerve is a vital part of the eyes and brain connection, inflammation can damage your vision while also causing cognitive issues. 

Oxidative Stress

Oxidative stress can severely impact your eyes and brain with damage from free radicals. These unstable atoms can damage your cells and cause a variety of illnesses. This condition often leads to inflammation that causes cognitive and visual issues.

Maintaining Good Eye Health

The strong eye connection to brain means that caring for your eyes is critical for overall health. A complete eye care routine includes healthy habits that protect and support your eyes daily. Eating a healthy diet rich in beta-carotene, wearing sunglasses to protect your eyes from UV rays, taking frequent breaks from screens, and getting annual eye exams will help keep your eyes in good shape.

Antioxidants to Protect Against Oxidative Stress and Disease

You may already know that antioxidants are good for you. These compounds fight free radicals to reduce your risk of cellular damage and various types of disease. Recent research from the National Center for Biotechnology Information has also indicated that consuming foods and supplements rich in antioxidants can reduce your risk of macular degeneration and other eye issues.

All antioxidants have health benefits, but some are more helpful for eye health. Here are some of them, along with natural sources:

  • Xanthophylls lutein and zeaxanthin (leafy greens, broccoli, peas, egg yolks)
  • Beta-carotene (carrots, sweet potatoes, broccoli, spinach, cantaloupe, tomatoes, squash)
  • Omega-3 fatty acids (salmon, tuna)
  • Omega-6 fatty acids (peanut butter, walnuts, safflower oil)
  • Vitamin A (carrots, sweet potatoes, cantaloupe)
  • Vitamin C (citrus fruits, spinach, tomatoes)
  • Zinc (beans, eggs, red meat, chicken)
  • Vitamin E (almonds, sunflower seeds)

Antioxidant-rich supplements can maximize your eye health and reduce your risk of eye diseases and similar issues. Correct supplementation with high-quality eye vision supplements like MacuHealth can give your eyes the nutrients they need.

Clinical Studies

carotenoid levels
LifeMeter uses a patient's fingertip to measure their carotenoid levels.

Written by MacuHealth
Reviewed by Jim Stringham, Ph.D.

High carotenoid concentrations have been shown to lower the severity of arthritis, improve heart and brain health, and reduce inflammation systemically and locally in tissues such as the retina. But how can doctors measure a patient’s carotenoid level so they can accurately gauge someone’s general nutritional health?

Enter LifeMeter. This innovative medical device is a simple, precise and non-invasive test that consistently and objectively measures carotenoid levels in your patients in less than three minutes using a customized spectrophotometer. Knowing a patient’s LifeMeter level facilitates the “nutrition discussion” and helps them make positive nutritional changes.

This exciting technology has matured out of the laboratory and is ready for clinical implementation. Below are several ways your practice (and patients) can benefit from LifeMeter.

Accurate and Reliable

Similar devices measure carotenoid levels from different locations on a patient’s palm, leading to a different outcome every time. LifeMeter utilizes reflection spectroscopy to measure the concentration of carotenoids in one area: the fingertip. The result is a concentration, not a carotenoid total. This means you’ll get an accurate and repeatable result regardless of fingertip size. The LifeMeter level correlates significantly with macular pigment level, circulating carotenoids, and the concentration of these vital nutrients in other bodily tissues, such as the heart and brain.

Encourages Compliance

It’s one thing to tell a patient to take a medication or supplement, but you can never really know if they’ll comply. With LifeMeter, once you’ve initiated a carotenoid supplement regimen, any improvement in carotenoid status can be seen within a month. And if their score stays the same or goes down, it means the patient hasn’t been compliant with their new regimen. By using LifeMeter, you’ll have quick and accurate feedback on any nutritional status changes. When patients see their LifeMeter level go up, they’ll get excited and know they’re on the right track.

Preventative Measure

LifeMeter promotes a proactive – not reactive – approach to health. Those with a low carotenoid concentration report having trouble driving at night and struggle with vision in glare, and tend to have poor contrast sensitivity, less protection against infection and disease, reduced speed of visual and cognitive processing, increased chance of sunburn, and higher frequency of eye strain and fatigue.


Studies show that adding and monitoring vital carotenoids in the body enhances visual and cognitive performance and overall health. Additionally, these nutrients are proven to aid in managing symptoms of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of vision loss for older adults.

Measure the Carotenoid Levels of All Patients

LifeMeter isn’t for one segment of your patients. It’s for everyone! There are over 30 peer-reviewed publications demonstrating its validity and effectiveness in over 2,000 subjects of varying races, ethnicities, and ages.

No Commitment

Unlike similar equipment, there are no sales goals to meet when purchasing or financing a LifeMeter. The device is yours, and to use it how you see fit.


With continued use, you and your patients will see the value of measuring carotenoid levels with LifeMeter. For more information on this latest innovation, visit 

Clinical Studies

supplement certified
The Supplement Certified logo

Written by MacuHealth
Reviewed by Jim Stringham, Ph.D.

Eye supplements, particularly those designed to manage the symptoms of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), are becoming increasingly popular. The nutrients in many high-quality supplements boost your eyesight and fill in some of the nutritional gaps in your diet. But research shows supplements may promise to include a defined amount of active ingredients on the label, yet the truth could be vastly different.

“We were amazed with what we saw,” John Nolan, founder and director of the Nutrition Research Centre Ireland (NRCI), told CTV News. “Not every product that’s commercially available actually has what it says on the label.”

When carotenoids are extracted from their source, they are vulnerable because the protective ester fatty acid chains are removed. Cheap formulations, such as powders and transparent capsules, as well as suboptimal storage techniques, can further degrade these nutrients. Supplements can lose their bioavailability to light and oxidation, meaning you aren’t getting everything promised on the label.

As the supplement industry becomes more crowded and competitive, it’s hard to know which supplements give consumers what they’re promised. This is why Supplement Certified was created. But what does it mean to have the logo of this third-party company on your supplement label? We’ll look at why ingredients degrade and the importance of testing their potency.

Formulation and Degradation: How to Get More of What You Need

Though a supplement’s label may claim a certain amount of carotenoids, the truth is because of low-quality formulations and cost-saving techniques, that number might be significantly lower. Factors that can alter the bioavailability of nutrients in supplements include the molecular structure of the active ingredients and the encapsulation process.

Supplement’s Molecular Structure and Formulation

The molecular structure and formulation of ingredients matter. For example, fish oil has re-esterified triglyceride and ethyl ester forms. While the latter is significantly cheaper to make, it’s much harder to absorb because of its synthetic form. The body recognizes re-esterified triglyceride fish oils, allowing them to be better absorbed.

Supplement’s Encapsulation Method

Supplements are encapsulated in many forms: powder, softgel, liquid, etc. Powder-filled capsules tend to have a higher chance of degrading and losing bioavailability due to their clear interlock, making them more susceptible to light and oxygen exposure, which can lead to oxidation. However, oil-filled softgels have airtight closing with more protection from heat, light, and oxygen – factors that can significantly degrade nutrients.

The Need for Quality Control

Over 11 million people in the United States are affected by some form of AMD, with those over the age of 50 being the most vulnerable. According to the National Eye Institute, that number will likely double in 30 years. The disease affects the macula, the region of the retina that provides us with central vision.

Exciting new research has given AMD sufferers some hope in battling this degenerative disease. The body places three powerful carotenoids – Lutein, Meso-Zeaxanthin and Zeaxanthin – in the macula. Collectively, these carotenoids are called “macular pigment.” Their robust antioxidant properties make them capable of protecting the macula against oxidation. 

Because the macular pigment is colored yellow, it absorbs potentially harmful blue light. This leads to improved visual performance, including better vision in glare, improved contrast sensitivity and enhanced night vision. Studies show these carotenoids can also potentially delay (or even halt) the progression of AMD.

Taking a macular carotenoid supplement regularly with a generally healthy diet can lower the risk of progressing to severe AMD by 25 percent and make a difference to those suffering from the disease. But if the potency of supplements disappears or diminishes, your eyes won’t receive the necessary nutrients to boost your vision or manage AMD symptoms.

How Supplement Certified Tests for Potency

Supplement Certified is transparent about its thorough testing process and goes the extra mile to test the stability of a supplement throughout its entire shelf life. Companies send batches to them for examination in their state-of-the-art laboratory and preserved in a constant climate chamber throughout testing. They assess three samples for content variability and obtain the full spectrum of possible carotenoids and fats that may be contained within the supplement. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is used to ensure the most accurate result.

When testing is complete, the manufacturer gets a report containing the results with pictures of the product package. A “pass” is received when the carotenoids equal or above the label-claimed amount and heterogeneity is below 10 percent. A “fail” is given if the measured concentration is below the amount on the label or it has a heterogeneity above 10 percent, even if the carotenoid amount is equal to or above the label claim.

The Results So Far

As of this writing, Supplement Certified tested 89 supplement brands, with just over half of them passing the company’s tests. MacuHealth is proud to meet the standards of Supplement Certified so it can carry its seal on all its supplements. For more information on Supplement Certified, visit

Clinical Studies

Introducing LifeMeter

Written by MacuHealth
Reviewed by Jim Stringham, Ph.D.

What would you change about your life if you learned how many vital antioxidants your body was actually getting? Would you try to increase them in your diet?

We’re proud to introduce LifeMeter, a portable, non-invasive device that determines the concentration of carotenoids in your skin. You can use the results to empower you and your healthcare provider to discuss treatments to improve your overall health and performance. These carotenoids include Alpha-carotene, Beta-carotene, Beta-cryptoxanthin, Lycopene, Lutein, Zeaxanthin and Meso-Zeaxanthin.

The Science Behind LifeMeter

Studies show that specific carotenoids accumulate in the largest organ in the human body – the skin. The level of these nutrients in the skin reflects the intake of fruits and vegetables in the diet. This amount also indicates the concentration of carotenoids in other tissues in your body, such as the retina and brain.

LifeMeter utilizes reflection spectroscopy to measure the concentration of carotenoids in the patient’s fingertip. The LifeMeter level is significantly correlated with their macular pigment level, circulating carotenoids, and the concentration of these vital nutrients in other bodily tissues, such as the heart and brain.

Why Knowing Your LifeMeter Level Is Important

Those with a low carotenoid concentration have been shown to have trouble driving at night, poor contrast sensitivity, reduced protection against infection and disease, lower speed of visual and cognitive processing, increased chance of sunburn, brain fog and higher frequency of eye strain and fatigue.

Targeted nutritional supplementation can enhance your quality of life. It can also offer reduced inflammation and health benefits to the heart and brain, and significantly improve visual health and performance outcomes. And once you’ve initiated a nutrition regimen, improvement in your carotenoid status can be seen within a month.

Are You Ready?

Over 30 peer-reviewed publications support the science behind LifeMeter, with studies demonstrating its validity, consistency and effectiveness in over 2,000 subjects of varying races, ethnicities, and ages.

Are you ready to make a positive nutritional change? Then visit your local medical professional to know your LifeMeter level so you can take the necessary steps to enhance your life.

Clinical Studies

fish oil supplement
One thing to look for in a fish oil supplement is where the ingredients are caught.

Written by MacuHealth
Reviewed by Jim Stringham, Ph.D.

As healthcare providers and optometrists continue to prescribe omega-3 supplements for eye, heart and brain health, many low-quality formulas are hitting the shelves at your local pharmacy or healthcare store. Despite their benefits, there are reports that many fish oil supplements don’t meet their label claims or have rancid ingredients.


What sets formulas like TG Omega-3 apart from other leading brands? We’ll dive into why patients need a high-quality fish oil supplement like MacuHealth’s to improve their quality of life.

Re-esterified Triglyceride (rTG) Form

When shopping for a high-quality fish oil supplement like TG Omega-3, check if the base formulation is “re-esterified triglyceride” (rTG) or “ethyl ester” (EE). Re-esterified triglyceride is the natural form found in fish such as salmon. It also has high bioavailability recognized by the body. Ethyl ester must be metabolized by the liver and is cheaper, easier to produce and utilizes ethanol as its backbone. It has half of the bioavailability (at best) of the rTG form.

Small Batch Manufacturing

Have you ever wondered where your fish oil supplement comes from? With TG Omega-3, you can find out! Our premium quality formula comes from fish caught in small batches in the cold waters off the coast of Chile. And because MacuHealth prioritizes ethically acquiring raw materials and environmental sustainability, we offer the ability to trace the source of our ingredients. Can your fish oil supplement make the same claim?

Does Your Fish Oil Supplement Have Delicious Taste and Texture?

If you’ve researched fish oil, you’ve undoubtedly read about an unusual aftertaste or “fishy burps” that occur when starting a supplement regimen. But the truth is that you shouldn’t be experiencing these side effects. These unusual tastes indicate you’re using a low-grade supplement, or the product is rancid.


TG Omega-3 won’t have these undesirable tastes or side effects because it’s manufactured with fresh, refined ingredients. Our easy-to-swallow softgels are Supplement Certified™ and Friend of the Sea Certified to ensure quality and freshness.

High Concentrations of DHA

You’ll find that many lower-cost fish oil supplements have an Omega-6 called gamma-Linolenic acid, or GLA, as an ingredient. GLA can produce good results for the body as it has some anti-inflammatory properties. But it can also have potentially unhealthy consequences. The body can convert GLA into arachidonic acid, or ARA, which tends to be inflammatory. And because this ingredient is in poultry, eggs and red meat, Americans potentially already have too much ARA in their diet. That can cause more inflammation, not less, which can lead to all sorts of health issues.


If you want a fish oil supplement with benefits for the brain and eyes, DHA is critical for enhancing neural performance. It increases the speed of nerve signals, improving visual and cognitive function, leading to improved reaction time and contrast sensitivity. And when EPA, which is shown to lower inflammation, and DHA work together, it provides optimal benefits to the body.


Taking a pharmaceutical-grade fish oil supplement delivers a safe and proven way to boost your eye, brain, and heart function. Because of evidence showing the benefits of taking EPA and DHA, MacuHealth developed TG Omega-3 Fish Oil to help patients optimize their health.


TG Omega-3 is a natural re-esterified triglyceride formulation that is purified up to five times to eliminate toxins, impurities and fishy taste. TG Omega-3 offers 2,200 mg of EPA and DHA combined per serving. Next time you shop for fish oil, check the label to see if it stands up to the rigorous qualifications that TG Omega-3 does.

eye vitamins
Vision supplements, or eye vitamins, are for everyone.

Clinical Studies

Written by MacuHealth
Reviewed by Jim Stringham, Ph.D.

Macular carotenoids are powerful and specific antioxidants that our body uses to fight a battle against free radicals in the retina. Since the body doesn’t synthesize these special nutrients – Lutein, Meso-Zeaxanthin and Zeaxanthin – on its own, they must be obtained via dietary consumption of dark leafy greens and other colored fruits and vegetables. 

Often, diet isn’t enough, and low intake of these crucial nutrients can result in damage from oxidative stress and inflammation that can lead to age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of vision loss in those over 60 years of age.

The problem is that the average person consumes only one to two milligrams of macular carotenoids daily. But research has proven the body receives significant benefits when taking between 20 to 25 mg daily. Additionally, modern farming conditions have caused the nutritional value of fruits and vegetables to decline.

But scientific evidence overwhelmingly shows that our eyes need Lutein, Meso-Zeaxanthin and Zeaxanthin to experience enhanced visual performance, protect our eyes from blue light and manage AMD risk and symptoms. At what age should we start taking these vital ingredients? We’ll look at when is a good time to start taking eye vitamins.

Why Eye Vitamins Are for Everyone

We’re relying more on our computers, tablets and smartphones. The drawback is that these devices emit shortwave frequencies (i.e., blue light) with high energy that can damage the macula over time. Additionally, there are other unwelcome symptoms that exposure to blue light can cause:

  • Dizziness
  • Headaches
  • Dry eye
  • Sleep disruption
  • Eye strain
  • General visual discomfort

Lutein, Meso-Zeaxanthin and Zeaxanthin benefit eye health and protect the retina from blue light-induced damage by increasing your macular pigment density. In other words, they act as a defensive wall to lower the risk of various eye diseases and undesirable symptoms that can arise due to blue light exposure. When found in an extremely pure and highly bioavailable form, as they are in eye vitamins like MacuHealth, they can also have the following benefits:

  • Enhanced sleep
  • Reduced eye strain
  • Reduced headache frequency
  • Improved visual performance (e.g., contrast sensitivity, glare, speed of processing)
  • Limit the risk of long-term eye health complications

Why Eye Vitamins Are Vital for Older Adults

As we get older, the risk of developing eye disease increases. We need carotenoids to build macular pigment and protect our vision. These diseases include cataracts and AMD. By enriching macular pigment with eye vitamins, you can help manage AMD symptoms and save eyesight in a diseased eye and, in more advanced forms of the disease, possibly delay the onset of the disease in the other eye.

Additionally, when post-cataract patients have had their crystalline lens removed, it takes out the natural blue light filtration normally provided by the lens. The replacement lens is clear. While good in many ways, the new lens allows blue light to pass through to the retina, making it more susceptible to damage. Taking an eye vitamin like MacuHealth can help to guard against this damage by building up the defense provided by macular pigment.

Why Eye Vitamins Are Vital for Athletes

Have you ever tried to catch a fly ball with the bright sun in your eyes? Baseball players need strong contrast sensitivity, your ability to distinguish between an object and its background, to make the big play. And researchers and eye care professionals state that testing for contrast sensitivity is a better measure of your visual performance than the standard examination of reading letters off a chart. Good contrast sensitivity allows you to detect subtle differences in shading and more accurately track objects (e.g., a ball) moving against varying background illumination.

Visual Processing Speed

In almost any sport, there are many instances where faster visual processing speed is a great advantage. For example, it’s hard for players to predict where a rebound will go once it leaves the backboard. Also, hockey goalies must anticipate a puck’s trajectory when an opposing player makes a lightning-fast shot. But if you have high visual processing speed, you can react quicker, better predict where things will be at any given time and make better decisions as you play.


Glare Disability and Recovery

Sunlight and bright stadium lights can wipe out your visual field and wear out your eyes. Look at how much a quarterback squints in the fourth quarter – this is a sign that he’s struggling with glare from the sun and stadium lights. Ocular fatigue factors into how well players perform, and glare makes it hard to judge the small but vital details. Several studies have demonstrated that the more you build up your macular pigment level, the greater benefit you’ll experience in terms of glare – both seeing through glare from bright lights and recovering from exposure to bright light.

Eye vitamins such as MacuHealth and MacuHealth Plus+ are specifically formulated with Meso-Zeaxanthin, Lutein and Zeaxanthin to enrich and restore macular pigment to optimum levels with continued use. And they’re safe and recommended for anyone, no matter their age.

Micro-Micelle Technology
How does Micro-Micelle Technology work?

Clinical Studies

Written by MacuHealth
Reviewed by Jim Stringham, Ph.D.

A supplement label may promise to include a defined portion of active ingredients, but research shows that the truth could be vastly different. Cheap formulations and storage techniques can degrade nutrients, causing them to lose their bioavailability to light and oxidation, meaning you aren’t getting everything promised on the bottle.

“At present, clinicians and consumers are not adequately informed via product labeling,” stated Dr. David Phelan, Professor John Nolan and Dr. Alfonso Prado-Cabrero in their study on supplements in the journal Nutrients.1 “However, it is also important to point out that there are quality and effective carotenoid products on the market, which have scientific evidence to back up their claims of label and efficacy.”

MacuHealth enhances the stability of its Triple Carotenoid Formula with something called Micro-MicelleTM Technology. It allows the body to absorb nutrients inside the supplement at a significantly higher rate. In a recent clinical study, MacuHealth’s formula provided the highest bioavailability with significantly higher serum and retinal response when compared to a standard macular carotenoid supplement.2

But how does Micro-Micelle Technology work? We’ll explain the process and what it means to MacuHealth users.

Why Micro-Micelle Technology Matters?

As stated above, studies have shown that the active ingredients in most carotenoid supplements that come in the form of a powder or tablet corrode, causing their potency to diminish or disappear altogether.  This means your eyes won’t receive the necessary nutrients to boost your vision, absorb harmful blue light, or manage the symptoms of age-related macular degeneration.

MacuHealth, an oil-based supplement, is formulated to stabilize the powerful carotenoids – Lutein, Meso-Zeaxanthin and Zeaxanthin – in its formula better than other supplements. But these nutrients, which appear in the supplement in their pure, natural form, tended to crystalize in the supplement’s previous version, making the carotenoids difficult for the body to absorb. Researchers started looking for a way to prevent these carotenoids from bonding together so more of them could reach the macula to enhance a patient’s vision.

How Does Micro-Micelle Technology Work?

Lutein, Meso-Zeaxanthin and Zeaxanthin make their way to the macula through a protein in the body called SR-B1. Because these carotenoids were clumping together, SR-B1 wasn’t taking as many of them as it could to the eye. A system needed to be created to keep ingredients stable and from crystallizing.

The answer came in the form of natural, organic acids (acetate). When you add acetate to each end of the carotenoid molecule, they maintain their solubility,3 greatly enhancing bioavailability. Placing these non-crystallized carotenoids in a stabilizing matrix, such as Vitamin E and sunflower oil, prevents oxidation. 

The acetates prevented the carotenoids from crystalizing and provided a more efficient way for the SR-B1 protein to transport them to the macular tissues that need them. The utilization of Micro-Micelle Technology marks an improvement over previous iterations of MacuHealth by increasing the bioavailability of the supplement’s formula without any negative side effects. 4

What Does This Mean for MacuHealth Users?

Micro-Micelle Technology ensures that the nutrients inside MacuHealth retain their all-natural form, and that your eyes and brain receive the carotenoids needed to manage AMD symptoms and improve nearly all aspects of visual performance. In short, you’re getting everything you paid for and the benefits that come with it. “This formulation represents a new standard in nutritional vision science and eye care,” says Professor Nolan.


For more information about Micro-Micelle Technology and MacuHealth’s Triple Carotenoid Formula, please visit this page.


  1. Phelan D, Prado-Cabrero A, Nolan JM. Stability of Commercially Available Macular Carotenoid Supplements in Oil and Powder Formulations. Nutrients. 2017;9(10): 1133.­­
  2. Green Gomez et al 2020. Doi:10.3390/antiox9080767
  3. Torres-Cardona, MD, Torres-Quiroga, JO. Short-Chain Diesters and Process for Making the Same. U.S. Patent 5959138A, 28 September 1999.
  4. Green-Gomez M, Prado-Cabrero A, Moran R, Power T, Gómez-Mascaraque LG, Stack J, Nolan JM. The Impact of Formulation on Lutein, Zeaxanthin, and meso-Zeaxanthin Bioavailability: A Randomised Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study. Antioxidants (Basel). 2020 Aug 18;9(8):767. doi: 10.3390/antiox9080767. PMID: 32824736.
dry eye
Eye drops can provide temporary relief from dry eye.

Clinical Studies

Written by MacuHealth
Reviewed by Jim Stringham, Ph.D.

The lights seem a little brighter than usual. You squint for minutes until your focus readjusts, but you can’t shake the feeling that there’s something in your eyes. They feel gritty and rough as you constantly rub them. They feel itchy around your sockets, and your eyeballs are so sore and inflamed that your vision becomes blurred.

The above paragraph describes what it’s like living with dry eye. This frustrating, and many times, chronic condition affects nearly 16 million Americans, particularly older adults. The ocular irritation may be relieved with a bottle of eye drops, but the ingredients in some of these products exacerbate symptoms. What are some ways you can combat dry eye? We’ll share what causes it, who’s at risk and some methods to treat it.

Causes of Dry Eye

Dealing with the symptoms of dry eye is enough to make you cry. But according to the American Optometric Association, the condition is caused by a lack of tears. Moisture spreads across the eye’s surface, lubricating and protecting them from foreign objects and infection. As we age, tear production and drainage through the tear ducts become imbalanced. The glands in and around the eyelids produce fewer tears or make lower-quality droplets that evaporate quickly, causing them to spread unevenly around the eye.

Tear production can decrease for several reasons. In addition to aging, hormonal changes caused by pregnancy and menopause cause more women to experience dry eye symptoms. Inflammation can develop because of other medical conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes and thyroid issues. Antihistamines, decongestants, antidepressants and blood pressure medications can also lead to fewer tears.

Environmental conditions have also caused symptoms to rise in younger people. Smoking and dry climates can intensify dry eye symptoms. So can an increase in your screen time. When looking at electronic devices for an extended amount of time, our eyes blink less, which leads to a decrease in tear production.


Here are some simple ways to prevent dry eye symptoms:

  • Regularly blink your eyes when staring at electronic devices for an extended amount of time
  • Take a 20-second break from whatever you’re working on every 20 minutes and focus your eyes on an object 20 feet away
  • Keep blowing fans and heaters away from your face
  • Wear sunglasses outdoors to reduce exposure to wind and other weather conditions
  • Drink the recommended 8 to 10 glasses of water daily to keep your body and tear ducts hydrated
  • Use artificial tears and humidifiers to keep eyes moist

How Supplementing with Omega-3s Helps

Inflammation is at the root of dry eye. Unfortunately, there is no cure. But there are a variety of treatments that can manage symptoms. Most people turn to over-the-counter eye drops. However, using them can make symptoms worse. Some prescriptions control some of the underlying causes of dry eye. There are also invasive procedures to help increase tear production or close the ducts to reduce tear loss.

Another way to soothe inflammation is by supplementing with Omega-3s. In addition to improving brain and heart health, an American Academy of Ophthalmology study shows consuming fish oil through seafood or supplements reduces dry eye symptoms. It also significantly lowers the risk of developing other retinal diseases like age-related macular degeneration (AMD).

Yet many people are hesitant to go on a fish oil regimen because of the low-quality ingredients that cause odd-smelling “fishy burps.” The formula for the supplement TG Omega-3 by MacuHealth uses oils from small, traceable open-water fish refined to the highest purity and quality. This ensures optimum health without undesirable fish burps. 

Are you getting enough carotenoids in your diet?

Clinical Studies

Written by MacuHealth
Reviewed by Jim Stringham, Ph.D.

You may not know carotenoids, but chances are you’ve heard of antioxidants. They’re robust components of healthy foods that take on molecules known as free radicals, which damage cells inside the body. 

There are over 700 carotenoids found in nature. Most fruits and vegetables contain carotenoids. Also, some leafy greens feature unique carotenoids that fight an intense battle against free radicals inside the retina.

“The retina, especially the macula, is thought to be an environment of high oxidative stress, meaning that there is an abundance of free radicals—molecules that damage proteins and DNA within cells. Antioxidants fight free radicals and are thought to help protect the retina from this damage,” explains Dr. Ivana Kim at Harvard Medical School.

If left unchecked, the damage from oxidative stress can lead to age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of vision loss in those over 60. Interestingly, three specific carotenoids deposited in the retina are clinically proven to prevent and manage the symptoms of AMD. We’ll look at how these three carotenoids guard the eyes and can improve eyesight and cognitive health.

Lutein, Zeaxanthin and Meso-Zeaxanthin

As Dr. Kim stated above, the retina needs a lot of oxygen to fuel your eyesight. Near the retina’s center is the macula, which serves central vision. It also contains the largest concentration of photoreceptors in the eye. It’s responsible for bringing detail and color to our sight. Because the macula demands so much oxygen to perform, oxidative stress and inflammation can severely impact eye and brain performance. It can cause a decrease in processing speed, contrast sensitivity and difficulty adjusting to low-light situations.

The body is aware of this, so it places three powerful carotenoids – Lutein, Meso-Zeaxanthin and Zeaxanthin – in the macula. Collectively, these carotenoids are called “macular pigment.” Their robust antioxidant properties make them capable of protecting the macula against free radicals. 

Because the macular pigment is colored yellow, it absorbs potentially harmful blue light. This leads to improved visual performance, including sharper colors, better contrast sensitivity and enhanced night vision. Studies show these carotenoids can also potentially delay (or even halt) the progression of AMD.

Lutein, Meso-Zeaxanthin and Zeaxanthin are essential nutrients for the eye and brain. However, our bodies can’t make them on their own. The average person consumes only one to two milligrams of macular carotenoids daily. This is because modern farming conditions have caused the nutritional value of fruits and vegetables to decline.1 Numerous studies show that taking supplements with all three macular carotenoids provides far superior results than taking Lutein and Zeaxanthin. Evidence also points to these nutrients reducing the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease and slowing its progression.

Carotenoids Aren’t Just for Eyes

Studies show that carotenoids accumulate in the parts of the brain that interact with the retina, which can offer improved cognitive function. These nutrients combat oxidative stress that has built up over time. Research shows oxidative stress is the root cause of Alzheimer’s Disease, and carotenoids could be beneficial in managing the condition.

In one study3, the Nutrition Research Centre Ireland and the University Hospital Waterford divided Alzheimer’s patients into two groups. One took a carotenoid formula of 10mg of Lutein, 10mg of Meso-Zeaxanthin and 2mg of Zeaxanthin. The second group received fish oil consisting of 450 mg of DHA and the carotenoid formulation. A third (control) group of patients without Alzheimer’s Disease took only the carotenoid formula.

After a year and a half of supplementation, those who took the carotenoid formulation and the fish oil experienced improved cognitive function. The results are based on a series of independently performed tests, including functional benefits in memory, sight and mood.

Professor John Nolan, Ph.D., who led the study, explains: “Our previous work confirmed that Lutein, Meso-Zeaxanthin and Zeaxanthin are found in the eye and that enrichment of these essential nutrients with nutritional supplements can improve visual function. However, their high concentration in the healthy human brain also suggests a role for these nutrients in cognition.”

Based on overwhelming scientific evidence, it’s clear that we need sufficient amounts of Lutein, Meso-Zeaxanthin, and Zeaxanthin for optimal visual and cognitive health and performance. Thankfully, supplementation can help us reach the levels we need to realize all the benefits.  


  1. Johnson, E. J., Maras, J. E., Rasmussen, H. M., & Tucker, K. L. (2010). Intake of lutein and zeaxanthin differ with age, sex, and ethnicity. Journal of the American Dietetic Association110(9), 1357–1362.
  2. Li, B., Ahmed, F., & Bernstein, P. S. (2010). Studies on the singlet oxygen scavenging mechanism of human macular pigment. Archives of biochemistry and biophysics504(1), 56–60.
  3. Nolan, J. M., Mulcahy, R., Power, R., Moran, R., & Howard, A. N. (2018). Nutritional Intervention to Prevent Alzheimer’s Disease: Potential Benefits of Xanthophyll Carotenoids and Omega-3 Fatty Acids Combined. Journal of Alzheimer’s disease : JAD64(2), 367–378.